Saffron is a spice and food dye of orange color, obtained from dried stigmas of saffron flowers (Crocus sativus). Saffron has a strong peculiar aroma and bitter spicy taste. Saffron stigmas are used to coloring and flavoring confectionery, in cooking, as well as in the production of cheese, sausages and liqueurs.
The mention of saffron is in many ancient sources: in the Nineveh library, compiled under the Assyrian king Ashurbanbanapal, Sumerian sources, the Bible, the Koran. In "Canon medical science "Avicenna writes:" If you drink saffron, it improves the complexion. Saffron excites lust, drives urine, clears eyesight and helps from the shroud. "Saffron was used in the army of Alexander of Macedon for the treatment of wounds.
There are many myths about saffron and legends. For example, one of the legends says that the Greek god of thunder Zeus did not fail to lie down on a bed of saffron in order to know the most violent passion for the woman who ever beat him. This is not surprising, because the aroma of spices, really enhances sexual desires. Phoenicians painted Saffron sheets for newlyweds, so that the first wedding night was unforgettable. For the cultivation of saffron, it needs special climatic conditions - dry climate with heavy rains in the fall. The bulbs of plants do not like high humidity and eventually die. Traditionally, saffron is cultivated in India, China, Pakistan, Morocco, and the South Caucasus.
Azerbaijan has a long tradition of cultivating saffron. According to historical data, the spice was brought in the VII-IX centuries from Asia Minor and began to grow on Absheron, in Ganja, Agdam and Salyan region. Saffron requires a dry climate and sandy soil. Therefore, over time, almost the entire territory of the Absheron Peninsula was sown with saffron. In Baku and nearby villages, excellent saffron, magnificent figs and unique grape varieties were grown. The ancient emblem of Baku depicted a loaded camel and on its sides saffron stalks with flowers as a sign that residents are engaged in the transportation of goods and are successfully breeding saffron.
According to some data, in the Middle Ages approximately 16 tons of dry saffron were exported from Azerbaijan, which was delivered to the markets of Russia and Europe. But with the development of the oil sector in Absheron, the share of saffron and other plants has consistently decreased. Oil production in the late XIX and early XX century caused irreversible damage to the ecology of the peninsula, fertile lands flooded with oil have not recovered to this day. Of course, Absheron saffron has always been famous for its high quality and performance. According to statistics from 1878, an average of 11 kilograms of dry saffron was produced per hectare, which is a record indicator. Even today, with advanced technologies, an average of only five kilograms per hectare is extracted. In 1927, the Zafaran state farm was created in Bilgah, since it is in this village that the best quality saffron grows. The territory of the state farm covered not only Bilgah, but part of Mashtagi and Shuvelan. However, to the collapse of the Soviet Union, it invariably declined and amounted to only 130 hectares.
140-150 kilograms of excellent saffron were acquired here, which was mainly used in the culinary industry. In 1996, the state farm was disbanded, and now saffron is grown exclusively in private farms.
Saffron grown in Bilgah has no equal in quality. What determines the quality of saffron? Why does such a wonderful saffron grow in the village of Bilgah? The quality of spices primarily depends on climatic conditions. Watering saffron is not necessary, heavy rainfall may affect the quality of the bulb. The plant needs moisture in the fall, from late September to November. Where there is more moisture, saffron begins to bloom in October, and where less is in November. High quality saffron is also grown in the Azerbaijani province- Sheki. Fertile black soil allows you to get a rich harvest of spices, but in this mountainous region there is more humidity than in Absheron, and often the collection of flowers ends in October. Saffron grown in Bilgah has no equal in its quality. Residents of this area do not know what is the disease of the cardiovascular system, some components of the air have a healing effect. There is even a sanatorium in this village, where patients are treated with air. This factor apparently is reflected on the quality of saffron.
The pharaohs flower. By the ancient Greeks flower called this name ..
Can be prepared without it Easter cake, nor marseille soup ... Egyptian priests knew about the antiseptic properties of which
Babylonian and Persian rulers wore saffron-colored shoes and beards, and of the ancient era ladies wore silk dresses.
It has a diaphoretic, antispasmodic and antibacterial, as well as tonic effect on the entire body, and also relieves tiredness
Need to work over from 80,000 to 150,000 flowers to get only 1 kg of saffron.
From 450 to 500 stigmas in 1 gr. of saffron.
In the first year one hectare of plantation brings 6 kg of spices and in the second year - up to 20 kg.
Rinse pus on the eyes make saffron infusion (5 stigma per 100 g of water).
In small doses it has a tonic effect and in large doses it has a calming effect. In this saffron characteristic
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